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Witengier v. U.S. Bank N.A.

United States District Court, E.D. Missouri, Eastern Division

April 21, 2017

U.S. BANK N.A., et al., Defendants.



         This matter is before the Court on the motion of defendant Antony Catlin to dismiss pursuant to Federal Rules of Civil Procedure 12(b)(2) and 12(b)(6). Plaintiffs have responded, and the issues are fully briefed.[1]

         I. Background

         On January 21, 2010, defendant U.S. Bank issued a loan to plaintiffs for the purchase of real property, secured by a note and deed of trust. The parties recorded the deed of trust with the St. Louis County Recorder of Deeds on February 2, 2010. Several years later, on August 1, 2014, the parties purportedly entered into a loan modification agreement.[2]

         Defendants contend that plaintiffs defaulted on the loan, and plaintiffs do not dispute that claim.[3] [Doc. #17 at 1 n.1]. Plaintiffs allege that they contacted defendant Anthony Catlin, a U.S. Bank employee who was assigned to help them find a solution to their mortgage difficulties. However, Catlin did not help them but instead referred them to SouthLaw, P.C..

         On September 14, 2016, defendant U.S. Bank appointed SouthLaw as the successor trustee under the deed of trust. [Doc. #15-1]. The Recorder of Deeds filed that instrument on September 21, 2016. Id. Defendants state that on September 26, 2016, SouthLaw sent notice to plaintiffs that a trustee's sale would take place on October 13, 2016. [Doc. #17 at 2; Doc. #15 at 1]. That notification also allegedly identified SouthLaw as the successor trustee.[4] [Doc. #17 at 2]. Plaintiffs successfully halted the foreclosure after filing for bankruptcy.[5] [Doc. #15 at 2].

         Plaintiffs initiated this action pro se in the Twenty-First Judicial Circuit Court of Missouri (County of St. Louis) after the attempted foreclosure. See [Doc. #1-1]. Defendant U.S. Bank subsequently removed the action to this Court on the basis of diversity of citizenship jurisdiction, 28 U.S.C. § 1332. Plaintiffs are Missouri citizens and defendants U.S. Bank and Catlin are Ohio citizens.[6] In the complaint, plaintiffs assert claims of breach of contract and breach of the covenant of good faith and fair dealing. They also assert a quiet title claim.[7]

         Plaintiffs base their claims on a number of alleged defects in the both the security instruments and the attempted foreclosure process. First, with regard to the security instruments, plaintiffs allege that (1) they did not receive an executed copy of the modified loan agreement, (2) Southlaw was not properly designated as the successor trustee, [8] and (3) U.S. Bank fraudulently assigned the note and concealed its “true” holder.[9] [Doc. #1-1 at 4, 10]. Plaintiffs additionally contend that defendants did not provide adequate notice of the trustee's sale. Specifically, defendants allegedly (1) directed notice to a “doe tenant, ” (2) sent notice fewer than twenty days before the scheduled foreclosure sale, and (3) did not record such notice in “official records.” Id. at 4; see Mo. Rev. Stat. § 443.325. Furthermore, plaintiffs claim that upon inquiry, defendants did not provide a “single point of contact” and evaded plaintiffs' attempts to ascertain the reinstatement amount. Id. at 5-8.[10] Finally, plaintiffs summarily assert that U.S. Bank and Southlaw perpetrated “a series of fraudulent transactions” by “modifying loan documents, manipulating property values and making loans that were in violation of a multiplicity of [s]tate laws.” Id. at 9.[11]

         Catlin seeks dismissal of this action against him for lack of personal jurisdiction. See Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b)(2). He also moves for dismissal for failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted. See Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b)(6).

         II. Discussion

         A. Personal Jurisdiction

         “To survive a motion to dismiss for lack of personal jurisdiction, a plaintiff must plead ‘sufficient facts to support a reasonable inference that the defendant[] can be subjected to jurisdiction within the state.'” Creative Calling Sols., Inc. v. LF Beauty Ltd., 799 F.3d 975 (8th Cir. 2015) (quoting K-V Pharm. Co. v. J. Uriach & CIA, S.A., 648 F.3d 588, 591-92 (8th Cir. 2011)). The evidence must be viewed in a light most favorable to the plaintiff; however, the burden does not shift to the party challenging jurisdiction. Fastpath, Inc. v. Arbela Techs. Corp., 760 F.3d 816, 820 (8th Cir. 2014).

         Personal jurisdiction can be specific or general. Viasystems, Inc. v. EBM-Papst St. Georgen GmbH & Co., KG, 646 F.3d 589, 593 (8th Cir. 2011). “Specific jurisdiction refers to jurisdiction over causes of action arising from or related to a defendant's actions within the forum state, while general jurisdiction refers to the power of a state to adjudicate any cause of action involving a particular defendant, regardless of where the cause of action arose.” Miller v. Nippon Carbon Co., Ltd., 528 F.3d 1087, 1091 (8th Cir. 2008) (alterations in original) (quoting Bell Paper Box, Inc. v. U.S. Kids, Inc., 22 F.3d 816, 819 (8th Cir. 1994)).

         “Specific personal jurisdiction can be exercised by a federal court in a diversity suit only if authorized by the forum state's long-arm statute and permitted by the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.” Fastpath, Inc., 760 F.3d at 820 (quoting Dairy Farmers of Am., Inc. v. Bassett & Walker Int'l, Inc., 702 F.3d 472, 475 (8th Cir. 2012) (internal quotation marks omitted)). Although some courts collapse the analysis, these inquiries are separate. Dairy Farmers, 702 F.3d at 475 (citing Bryant v. Smith Interior Design Grp., Inc., 310 S.W.3d 227, 231-32 (Mo. 2010) (en banc) (analyzing the statutory and constitutional questions separately)). “The reach of a state long arm statute is a question of state law, ” while “the extent to ...

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